Це третій текст з циклу «Schooling & Education» і він присвячений системі освіти в Америці. Текст «Education in America» є заключним, так як передбачається, що ви вже читали тексти про систему освіти в Росії і Великобританії і знаєте слова:
compulsory, primary education, secondary education, comprehensive, ability, entrance exams, specialized schools, profound knowledge, academic subjects, higher education, enter a university, take exams, pass exams, fail exams (from the text «Education in Russia»)
stage, grammar school, national exam, General certificate of secondary education, further education, to accept, to graduate from, to provide education, private school, boarding school, public school, assessment (from the text «Education in Britain»)
Отже, читаємо текст про систему освіти в Америці (Education in America). Специфічні слова, що стосуються системи освіти в США, виділені помаранчевим кольором.
Education in America
(text about the American Educational System)
- melting pot — плавильний котел
- getting started — покласти початок
- successful career — успішна кар’єра
- main aim — головна мета
- grade — клас, рік навчання
- elementary school — початкова школа
- high school — старша школа
- elective subjects — предмети за вибором
- be necessary for — бути необхідним для
- public school — державна загальноосвітня школа (! У Великобританії public school — приватна школа для аристократії)
- private school — приватна школа
- religious school — духовне училище (такі школи є і у Великобританії)
- extracurricular activity — позашкільні заходи
- take into account — враховувати (при вступі)
- institution — навчальний заклад
- community college — коледж, в якому навчаються студенти, які живуть вдома
- additional education — освіта
- to receive a bachelor’s degree — отримати диплом бакалавра
- master’s degree — диплом магістра
- high school graduate— випускник школи
- Harvard — Гарвард
Americans have always believed in education but in a special American way. The schools’ first job was to turn millions of foreign children into Americans. Since they came from dozens of different countries, that’s not easy. Schools had to teach the children to speak English, to love their new country and to learn how to live in it. American schools were the “melting pot” in which the differences were forgotten. They were the ladder which the poor could climb to a better life. Getting started on a successful career was the main aim.
There is no national curriculum in the USA. Each state has its own system of schools. But there are some common features in the organization of school education in the country.
Compulsory education begins at the age of 6 in most states and continues usually until 16. School consists of 12 grades: 6 years of elementary school and 6 years of high school, but this plan may be different in different states. Children move on to high school in the 7th grade and study there until the 12th grade. There are elective subjects, and every student can choose the ones which he thinks will be necessary for him in his future work or further education.
The state schools are called public schools, besides there are private schools, which are very expensive, and religious schools which are also fee-paying.
There are no national exams, although schools and some states have their own exams.
Extracurricular activity (such as playing for one of the school’s sports teams) is also very important in the American School system and is taken into account by colleges and universities.]
When young people finish secondary school they go on to community colleges, which provide two years of higher education at minimal cost. A number of young people go to colleges and universities that provide four years of higher education necessary to receive a bachelor’s degree, as well as additional education for a master’s degree.
Generally, the system of higher education includes 4 categories of institutions:
Any of these institutions may be either public or private. The public institutions are financed by state. Among the private universities the most famous is Harvard.